About the Pinnacle Constructions
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Tips for House Paint Before you start painting work Fix scaffolding properly Planks, bamboos and ‘Ballies’ don’t rest on or touch the surface to be painted. Proper stage scaffolding is erected for painting of ceiling. Double scaffolding is provided for exposed surface. Fill surface voids, pores and cracks All masonry or plaster surface voids, pores and cracks, nail holes are filled with filler before starting paint work. Clean painting surface and room The surface is thoroughly cleaned off mortar droppings, dust, grease and other foreign matters. Old work, all loose material and scales are removed by sand papering. The room is thoroughly clean/broom and the whole building is cleaned at least one day before painting. index Dry up priming coat for 48 hours The priming coat applied already should be dried out for at least 48 hours before starting painting. Fix electrical, water supply, sanitary pipes and door and window frames All electrical fittings, water supply, sanitary pipes and door and window frames are fixed in required position and if found any short coming, it should be corrected and repaired before starting painting. Employ skilled painter The painter employed for painting is skilled enough to do the job well. Allow newly plastered surface to mature for six months Newly plastered surface should be allowed to mature for a period of at least six months prior to painting work. If you want to start painting before six months, a coat of alkali resistant priming paint should be done. Fix ladders properly Ladders used for painting work are tied with pieces of clothes on the top end of vertical members to avoid damage or scratches on painting surface. During painting of surface/wall Do painting in right weather condition Paint work must not be done in adverse weather condition like hail storm and dust storm especially for exposed work. The paint work is not done in cold weather i.e. room temperature is not below 5 degree Celsius. Stir paint well to maintain uniformity The paint is stirred well in its original containers with the help of a solid wooden or iron stick during application of paint to maintain uniform consistency. Do subsequent coats after 24 hours Subsequent painting coat should be done at least 24 hours after the first is dried well. Paint edges, corners, all doors and window accessories well All edges, corners, top and bottom, bolts, nuts, sides, rebate, cleats, stops, bidding and sash putty with glass pan are painted well. There is no damage to furniture and fixtures during paint job. At the time of spray painting, cover doors, windows, bushes etc. Utilize proper brushes The brush should be of 15 cm long, double bristles for wall paint. After each day’s work brushes are washed in hot water thoroughly with soap solution or with thinner and hung down to dry. Clean containers in hot water with soap solution also. Wear protective glasses and be safe While painting over head, wear protective glasses to avoid the fall of paint in your eyes. Presentation of a series of cans of paint of various colors Avoid alcohol and smoking The painter should not drink alcohol during painting work as toxic fumes from paint are dangerous for his health. While painting, do not smoke to avoid fire near painting area. Keep children away from painting area Don’t allow children to enter painting area as some paints contain harmful toxic elements. They should be not allowed to spoil painting work, if so wash them thoroughly with soap and water. Park your vehicle away from painting area to protect it from the fumes of paint. Check after painting is over No brush mark is left on surface Any brush mark is not left on the surface after the paint is dry. To avoid splashes of paint on wall the paint should be done on ceiling prior to walls. Clean paint drops thoroughly Paint drops on floor, electric fittings, door and window fitting and glass panes are thoroughly cleaned with good quality paint remover. After cleaning paint drops there are no scratches on glass panes and fittings etc.
Furniture and fittings, you may be able to change with the time however the flooring is something there for a very long period of time. As choosing your flooring needs lots of effort and also it will cost you a fortune. Also, choosing flooring for your new home is not an easy task. There are so many options available for flooring materials to choose from a wide range in market. There are various types of flooring materials are available in the market, so it is bound to happen where people get confused while choosing which flooring material is best for their home. Choosing flooring materials usually depend upon the following criteria:aranzacja-przestronnego-wnetrza-crema-marfil-myway-ceramika-paradyz • Choices • Uses • Quality • Traffic (High, Low or Medium) • Difficulty of Installation • Required Level of Finishing • Maintenance (cleaning) • Economy Here we have tried to define various types of flooring materials which are most popular nowadays: Types of Flooring Materials 01. Tiles Flooring a. Ceramic Tiles Flooring b. Porcelain Tiles Flooring 02. Stone Flooring a. Marble Flooring b. Granite Flooring 03. Wood Flooring a. Solid Wood Flooring b. Engineered Wood Flooring c. Laminate Wood Flooring 4. PVC or Vinyl Flooring 5. Brick Flooring 01. Tiles Flooring Among all the type of flooring used in the house, “tile flooring” is a very common and popular. The tiles are available in varieties of colors, textures and patterns. Tiles flooring also have types like ceramic tiles, porcelain tiles, etc. We have tried to give a brief explanation on two most commonly used types of tiles: a. Ceramic Tiles Flooring Vinyl-Flooring-Newcastle-Image-8Ceramic tile is made up of mixture of clay and water only. It is used in indoor as well as outdoor areas. Ceramic tiles are ideal for wet areas like bathrooms, kitchens, etc. as these tiles are not very slippery as compared to vitrified tiles. Architectural versatility for flooring comes in the form of ceramic tiles. You can install ceramic flooring in a broad range of environments. So let’s find out the pros and cons of ceramic tile flooring. Pros and Cons of Ceramic Tile Flooring Pros: 1. Water Resistance The glazed version of ceramic tiles has an excellent protective layer on top of the material. It provide stain and water resistance. In fact, ceramic flooring also offers protection against high humidity penetration. Such characteristics make it suitable for moist settings like the kitchen and bathroom. On the other hand, the unglazed version requires sealing to provide liquid protection. You will find grout lines between the ceramic tiles, which are prone to moisture. So these also need sealing to keep water at bay. Otherwise, liquids seep down the grout lines and weaken the installation. 2. Durability Ceramic tiles have an incredibly resilient nature. And this means that the flooring is a hard nut to crack. High-quality installation tends to last for as long as 20 years. And even longer if the flooring is well maintained. On top of that, if one ceramic tile somehow gets damaged due to severe impact, you can replace that one in no time. 3. Maintenance When it comes to maintenance, there’s nothing you need to worry about with ceramic tile flooring. Liquids, stains, and dirt are not difficult to clean. You can vacuum or sweep the floor using a brush attachment as a part of regular maintenance. For heavy-duty stains, cleaners are the best options. And such appliances don’t tend to damage the hard material of ceramic flooring. 4. Cost-Effective Even though ceramic tiles are slightly expensive, they offer great value for money. When compared to other flooring options, ceramic tiles are moderately costlier. On the other hand, wood flooring and carpet are more on the affordable side. But they don’t last as long as ceramic tile flooring. Once installed correctly, ceramic tiles add lifelong value to your home. 5. Allergen Concerns Due to the solid, hard surface, ceramic flooring doesn’t attract allergens like pollen, dust, and dirt. Even when these elements are present on the tiles, you can spot them easily. So all you need to do at such times is wipe away the mess with a sponge or mop. This is good news for people suffering from asthma or allergies. Ceramic tiles are an excellent option if you want to keep the environment in your house free of harmful or irritating particles floating in the air. Cons: 1. Hard Flooring The solid, hard surface of ceramic tiles may be easy to maintain and clean, but that doesn’t make them comfortable to step or stand on. These tiles are not like resilient floors. That means you cannot soften them with padded underlayment. Such a nature of ceramic flooring makes it unsuitable for spaces where people have to stand for long hours of the day. So the best solution to this problem is covering up the floor with area rugs. You can place rugs in the spots where people tend to stand more often. 2. Temperature When winter sets in flooring kept on cold. But it also means a cold floor during the summer season definitely good for Pakistan’s weather.porcelain-wood-effect-tile-helps-create-the-look-and-feel-of-with-regard-to-modern-floor-tiles-designs-5 3. Installation These kinds of tiles are heavy and hard in quality. Installing them means using a broad range of tools, grouts, and mortars. The process can be carried out by only by a professional. But the problem here is that it’s time-consuming. And even a single mistake can ruin the whole procedure, thus leading to major problems along the way. Final Verdict So what have we gathered from the pros and cons of ceramic tile flooring? That it’s an excellent choice for those who want easy maintenance and long-lasting value. Due to their exceptional water resistant quality, ceramic tiles are a great option for bathrooms and kitchens as well. b. Porcelain Tiles Flooring Porcelain tiles are the type of vitrified tiles. It is staining and water resistant. Porcelain tiles are most commonly used in living room, kitchen, bedroom, etc. They have a glossy finish as compared to ceramic tiles though they are also available in matt finish. Porcelain tiles is made by hydraulic pressing a mixture of clay, quartz, feldspar and silica, which make vitreous surface. Thus creating a single mass making them hard with low porosity. Different clay bodies reach vitrification at different temperatures. There are various types of vitrified tiles available in the market like; • Full Body Porcelain Tiles: Full body Porcelain tiles have pigment in entire thickness of the tile. Therefore, scratches are less noticeable in these types of vitrified tiles. Also, when you have to cut the tiles, borders of tiles will be of the same color. • Double Charge Porcelain Tiles: Double charge Porcelain tiles are fed through a press that prints the pattern with a double layer of pigment (two kinds of colours are fed into the machine). Therefore, the upper layer becomes 1 to 2 mm thicker. So, it is a viable option where traffic is medium to heavy. • Soluble Salt Porcelain Tiles: Porcelain tiles are printed with screen printing technology and then polished, therefore it is called soluble salt. • Glazed Porcelain Tiles: Glazed Porcelain Tiles has a glazed surface. This glazed surface allows any type of design, surface textures, etc. on it. It can increase the aesthetics of the area. The advantages and disadvantages of porcelain tile floors There are many porcelain tile benefits to consider, and all those benefits come together to make a porcelain tile floor highly attractive. Taking the time to get familiar with all the different benefits will make the price tag easier to deal with, and before you know it, you might be happily paying for a porcelain tile installation of your own. Resists wear: Porcelain tile is highly resistant to wear and tends to last better over the years. That’s because porcelain tile has fewer air pockets, it’s a denser material, it’s more uniform in construction and tends to be harder and thicker overall than most other tile varieties. Porcelain tile floors are known to last for years, and they are a top choice for business use or in rental properties because of just how durable they are over time. Low Maintenance: Maintaining flooring can be really intensive when you have something like hardwood flooring, or it can be quick and easy when you have porcelain tiles. Porcelain tiles look great, they’re tough, and they are simple to maintain. They don’t require any special sealing to keep out water as some other tiles do. Porcelain tile floors are simple to clean and water wipes right off them without causing any real damage. That’s why porcelain tile is used heavily in kitchens, bathrooms and entryways. They aren’t entirely waterproof but are resistant enough to make them easy to keep clean and in good shape over time. Porcelain tile floors are some of the easiest to maintain out of all the different flooring varieties available. They’re beautiful: One of the huge porcelain tile benefits is the way that the material looks. It’s made from high-quality components and put together to be an almost luxury product. This tough tile solution looks better than most ceramic tiles and will transform your space into something you are truly proud of. The flooring comes in a range of appearances, and some of the styles of porcelain tile are truly stunning. Excellent for high traffic use: Porcelain tile floors are perfect for high traffic environments for a few different reasons, which makes them so desirable for business use. This flooring is highly resistant to wear, and breakage, even against the rough nails of pets. The floors are highly moisture resistant and simple to clean as well. Those different benefits come together and make porcelain tile floors perfect for high traffic environments. Business owners or homeowners that like to throw parties can really benefit from porcelain tile installation. Porcelain tiles will hold up to the use and abuse of everyday life, and you can just enjoy the way they look without spending hours on maintenance tasks. 1726_003_ambzoomOffered in a wide range of styles: Anyone can be happy with porcelain tiles, which is another one of the porcelain tile benefits. This flooring option can be made to look like most other types of flooring to suit your tastes. Porcelain tiles can be made to look like marble, granite, slate, hardwoods, limestone and just about any other type of flooring that you are interested in. Porcelain tile is highly diverse, which means you don’t have to settle for one particular style when investing in porcelain. Instead, you can get any appearance that you would like, and settling isn’t necessary. With all the different options available for look, color, pattern, and size when it comes to picking out porcelain tile, it’s simple to match any style that you are interested in having in your home. Highly durable: One of the most important porcelain tile benefits is its durability. Porcelain tile is made from highly refined clay that’s fired at higher temperatures and designed to hold up better than most other types of flooring on the market. If you have pets, or you are just hard on floors in general, there are few options better than porcelain tile for long-lasting wear resistance. You should seriously consider porcelain tile because it just holds up well and isn’t hard to care for either. It’s tough to damage the flooring, and it is possible to replace it in the future piece by piece if necessary. More moisture resistant: One major issue that some homeowners in cold climates experience with ceramic tile is cracking due to moisture issues. That’s because damp tile exposed to freezing temperatures will crack apart. Porcelain tile is much less likely to suffer from this problem though. That’s because porcelain tile floors are denser and more uniform and much less porous than other tile varieties. There isn’t as much of a chance that moisture will seep through porcelain tiles, which leaves you with a stronger and more reliable form of flooring. Simple to clean: Porcelain tile doesn’t harbour bacteria like more porous material does, and it’s very simple to wipe off and keep clean over time. It can be treated like most other tiles and swept and mopped without issue. The tile stays cleaner than traditional tile and doesn’t suffer from staining as easily either. Business owners will love how easy it is to keep porcelain tile floors in good shape and looking good, but so will homeowners that want a neat and tidy looking space to live in. The Disadvantages of Porcelain Tiles There are plenty of reasons to like porcelain tile floors, but those porcelain tile benefits don’t excuse the downsides to this type of flooring. There are some issues with this type of flooring that you should be aware of as well before deciding on the solution for your home or business. Difficult to install: Since porcelain tile is denser, it’s more difficult to work with as well. The things that make it so long-lasting and reliable, also make it harder to cut through and layout properly. Porcelain tile is highly dense, and only the most experienced flooring professionals should attempt porcelain tile installation. More expensive: When you’re working with a pretty tight budget, the price can be another concern with porcelain tiles. They aren’t outrageously priced, but they tend to cost more per tile than marble flooring, and they are costlier to have installed as well. If you are attempting to get the most affordable flooring that you can, porcelain tile floors might not be your best option. On the other hand, the flooring is likely to last for years longer than more affordable solutions, so it could actually be a better value over the long term than a more affordable flooring option. Porcelain tile floors are certainly more, which you have to think about, especially if your budget is already being stretched, but it shouldn’t be your only concern when choosing a flooring type to go with. More difficult to repair: Finally, porcelain tile is more difficult to repair than ceramic tile flooring is. That’s because the tiles are more difficult to work with, and you’ll likely be quoted a higher price if you have to bring professionals in to swap out tiles for you. With that said, it’s less likely that porcelain tile floors will need repairs in the future. If you compare repair costs between porcelain tile floors and another option other than porcelain tiles, the costs would likely be comparable since repairs aren’t necessary as much as tough porcelain tile flooring solutions. It’s important to really think about the porcelain tile benefits as well as the downsides to this flooring solution. As long as you don’t mind the added cost of the flooring, the added weight that it brings to your home or business, or the difficulty to repair or install, it’s really worth considering as a flooring solution. Porcelain tile is one of the toughest floor varieties that you can go with, and it’s an excellent option for pet owners. The flooring can look any way that you want it to, it does well in most areas of the home and is worth some serious consideration, just make sure that you work with professionals to help you come up with the right flooring for your needs. Porcelain vs. Ceramic Tile Porcelain vs. ceramic tile: Is this a war between two vastly different types of materials or simply a war of words? The terms porcelain and ceramic are often used interchangeably as if they were the same thing. Tile shop salespeople often claim a world of difference between the two in order to justify porcelain’s cachet and its higher prices. But there is not much difference between porcelain and ceramic tile. Porcelain and Ceramic Tile Basics As it turns out, ceramic and porcelain are composed differently and do behave accordingly upon installation, but with only slight differences. The chief difference is that porcelain tile is more impervious than ceramic tile and is thus subject to less water infiltration. Porcelain tile has a water absorption rate of 0.5 percent or lower. First, fired tile is weighed. Then it is boiled for five hours and let to sit in water for 24 hours. Next, it is weighed again. If the tile weighs less than half of one-percent more as a result of water absorbing into its surface, it is considered porcelain. Porcelain tile is often extruded; has fewer impurities than ceramic; is often rectified; and often contains more kaolin than ceramic. It is formed of quartz, clay, and feldspar that is fired at temperatures ranging from 1,200 to 1,400 degrees C. But since that also defines many ceramics, again the difference is that porcelain has that 0.5 percent or less water absorption rate. 02. Stone Flooring Stone flooring is natural, beautiful, and always stylish that stands out in contrast to any synthetic or manufactured stone products. Natural stone also comes in different types such as granite, marble, limestone, slate, travertine, sandstone, etc. All the types of stone have different characteristics. The naturally cool, hard surface is ideal for warm climates. a. Marble Flooring marble-floorsMarble is a metamorphic rock. Marble tile is a natural floor surface covering that is quarried from mountains around the world. Priced for its beauty, style, and elegance, this material has graced the palaces of kings and queens for centuries, making it an upscale, luxurious option for interiors. However, there are some serious drawbacks and maintenance concerns that come with the installation of these floors, that need to be understood before a purchasing choice is made. Marble Flooring Pros Style: The biggest advantage of marble floor tile is that it can instantly elevate the appearance of a space, giving it a regal bearing that is hard to imitate. At the same time marble is available in multiple colors, and even in stunning multicolor mixes, providing flexible options for a variety of decorative schemes. Tiles can also be cut to rectangles, and triangles of varying sizes, in order to create complex mosaic piece installations. Unique: Because it is a product of the earth, every single piece of marble tile used in every single floor is a one of a kind, and there is no other like it anywhere in the world. In the case of multi colors this can be quite extreme, with distinct features blaring forth from every tile. Natural: The look of a marble floor can bring the stunning power and dignity of a flowing mountain range into an interior space. Even if the material is heavily refined, the inherent feel and presence of its energy can have a potent effect, injecting an environment with trembling energy and awe, while also connecting it to the greater outside world. Translucence: Artists have treasured marble for centuries because it has a natural translucent property that allows light to penetrate through it slightly. This can make a statue, or even floor tiles seem to almost glow when the sun hits them just right.The illuminated effect is much more pronounced in white and lighter colored materials. Marble Flooring Cons Scratches: Even though it is essentially a rock, marble is actually a relatively soft material that can be scratched, scraped, and chipped under the wrong conditions. This is especially true if the material is polished, as the imperfections will be more noticeable in the smooth, flat solid surface. Unfortunately, scratches can not be easily repaired without replacing the damaged material completely. Acid Stains: Marble is a base on the PH scale, which means that it will have a chemical reaction whenever it comes in contact with acidic substances. This can include a wide variety of foods, sauces, beverages, and cleaning products. Unfortunately, the discoloration stains that come from these processes are permanent. Water Damage: All natural stones are porous, and marble is prone to water penetration, and staining from colorful liquid agents. This can be prevented by applying a chemical below surface penetrating sealer, as well as a barrier above surface sealer to the stones after installation. Cracks: Being relatively soft, marble floor tiles can suffer from cracking, breaks, and chips. If the floor is improperly installed this can be a particular problem, as any gaps between the material and the subfloor will be weak points ready to burst and break under even standard pressure. Slippage: When polished, marble can be an extremely slick and slippery surface, that may be a hazard for accidental falls. This is especially true if the material gets wet due to environmental concerns or spillage, and is compounded by the fact that the hard surface characteristic of these floors can be unforgiving on bones and bruises. Price: Marble floors are a premium architectural element, and they are priced accordingly. Generally, they fall on the mid range as far as natural stone costs, but it cost higher than Synthetic tile after loading hidden costs. They also having a shorter lifespan than harder, more durable materials like porcelain tile and granite. b. Granite Flooring Granite is an igneous rock that gets formed when exposed to a high heat. Its structure is crystalline, and tiles made from granite are very dense and strong. Granite tile strength is almost the same or even higher than porcelain tile. Granite is an ideal option for kitchen countertops. As mentioned, granite is a very dense stone which makes it very durable and reliable material to use for any home. It can be installed everywhere in your home, office, kitchen, lobby, or anywhere else in areas that often get stained or scratched through daily use. It is available in different colors and sometimes crystals can be added to the surface. Installing a granite floor will make your lobby or any other room very appealing. The granite glitter comes from the bond of quartz crystals and the feldspar. Granite floors are very resistant to spills or stains. It adds great brightness to your home and its good resistance comes from the fact that granite is formed by cooling after previously being extremely pressurized.maxresdefault Pros of Granite Aesthetics Granite tile floors give a very attractive look to your home. Granite flooring is available in many different designs, colors or patterns. Durable Granite tiles are very durable material that can be installed in places that tend to get stained or scratched. This is because granite is very resistant to stains or scratches. Long Lasting Granite flooring is very dependable, strong, and can last for a very long time. That means you can have it installed everywhere you think works best for you. Polish: Unlike most natural stones, granite is able to take a very high polish, getting silky smooth and shimmering when treated properly. This is a look of sophistication and glamor, that evokes the highest sense of elegance in a space. It’s also a truly distinct look, which can make a difference when trying to create a flooring installation that really stands out. Property Value Having granite tile floor installed in your home will also increase the overall value of your property, due to the excellent quality and durability of granite. Besides kitchens, bathrooms or living rooms, granite flooring is a great option to install in your outdoor swimming pool or porch, because it will never fade under exposure of sun rays. Granite has a porous nature, so you can always relax and cool off your feet in the hottest summer months. Granite floors also absorb the coolness in the rooms that are air conditioned. Cons of Granite Professional Installation Granite floors should be installed professionally and carefully in order to give great visual appeal. Heavy Granite is one of the heaviest flooring materials, so it is very important to determine whether this type of flooring is suitable for your upper floor of home. 03. Wood Flooring Wood flooring is very old type of flooring material; however, it has never been outdated. It is used under special circumstances such as in hilly areas and in damp places. With proper care and maintenance, wood flooring can last a long time. There are various types of wooden flooring which are commonly used:hardwood a. Solid wood floor Solid wood flooring is made from a piece of wood which has thickness of around 20 mm. Solid wood flooring can be installed in any room of your house, except in areas where there is high moisture content such as kitchen, bathrooms and basements. b. Engineered Wood Flooring Engineered wood flooring is made with the core of plywood and a layer of solid wood attached on its top. Engineered wood flooring gives more attractive look than laminate wood flooring. c. Laminate Wood Flooring Laminate wood flooring is obtained by placing a layer of a photographic image of wood over a fibre board. But many modern laminates are actually quite realistic, and almost indistinguishable from wood. As it is a synthetic product, it gives look and feel of natural wood. Laminate wood flooring can be installed in any room such as living room, bedroom, and dining room except wet areas like bathroom and laundry rooms. If you’re thinking about laminate, here are a few pros and cons to consider. PROS It’s cheaper than wood. The biggest thing laminate flooring has going for it is its price. Of course this will vary depending on the laminate you choose, but generally a laminate floor will cost much lower than natural hardwood. It’s easier to install. Laminate flooring comes in pre-cut planks that neatly lock together, and its softness makes it easier to cut. It’s quick to install and a fairly easy, so you can save even more money by installing it yourself. It can even be installed on top of an existing floor. It’s very durable. Since laminate flooring is finished with a tough ‘wear layer’, it’s very scratch-resistant, much more so than wood. CONS It can’t be refinished. Since laminate is just fibre board with a thin wood-look layer on top, you don’t have the option of refinishing it if you decide you don’t like the color. Once the top layer wears out, the whole floor must be replaced. It doesn’t last as long as wood. A typical laminate floor will last about ten years. Natural wood floors, on the other hand, can last for 25 years or even longer. It’s not suitable for wet areas. Laminate’s glossy top layer makes it resistant to spills, but it’s not recommended for wet areas like bathrooms. If water stands on the floor and is able to soak between the planks, it can cause the floor to swell and the layers to peel apart. Caring for a Synthetic Wood Floor To keep a synthetic floor looking like the real thing, make sure to maintain it properly. Use a dust mop or vacuum regularly and clean up spills immediately with a damp cloth. Unlike earlier models, today’s laminate floors do not require any waxing or refinishing. Of course, you should always follow the manufacturer’s guidelines that comes with your floor. Protect synthetic floors from scratches by using door mats to scrape dirt and rocks from shoes and by using soft castors under furniture such as chairs. By following proper maintenance procedures, you should be able to keep your synthetic floor for years. Vinyl4. PVC or Vinyl Flooring PVC flooring is also known as vinyl flooring. These types of flooring material have a very smooth top surface and a rough lBrick Flooringower surface. Vinyl flooring is a good choice for areas that are prone to spills and moisture such as kitchens, bathrooms, laundry rooms, also for offices, etc. 5. Brick Flooring Brick flooring is one of the oldest types of flooring materials. It is majorly used in courtyards, stores, godowns, etc. Brick flooring is durable and provides sufficiently hard floor surface. It provides a non-slippery and fire-resistant surface.
Aluminium windows The ultimate modern window material, aluminium combines high aesthetics with incredibly high performance, creating a window suited to the demands of a range of houses. Aluminium windows have experienced a surge of popularity in recent years. No longer just for commercial buildings, domestic aluminium windows are perfect for adding a touch of modern elegance to a house. Why to Choose Aluminium Windows The Aesthetic Look Aluminium windows play a major role in defining the overall look of the elevations – in this era of big glass, increasingly so – and therefore it’s worth prioritising the look. Firstly, concentrate on achieving slim sightlines. Secondly, look at the way the opening and fixed glass elements look side by side. The Price Make sure that you are comparing like for like when it comes to quotes from different suppliers – assessing things like locks, handles, any required pressings and so on. There is likely to be a huge range in quotes, but don’t forget that this is more than a pricing game: look for lead-in times, brands usedWhatsApp Image 2018-02-14 at 2.57.28 PM in sections like Chawala, Prime, Alco etc. Don’t forget that, as most systems require specialist fitting, you must hire a trusted local expert installation vendor. Strength and Quality of Aluminium Windows There is a surprising variety in the quality of aluminium used. Reputable manufacturers use prime billets in the manufacture, rather than scrap metal. Look at the Quality of the Finish There can be a huge variety in the quality of the aluminium windows themselves. Good quality aluminium should have a perfectly smooth and consistent finish, while poor quality may have pitting from when the profile has been heated during powder coating. Build Quality The way the window is put together can vary a lot from one supplier to the next. Ensure that the external and internal frame elements are distinct also ask where the key elements (like locks, wheels, handles) originated and where they were actually manufactured. uPVC windows uPVC, or to give its full name; unplasticised Poly Vinyl Chloride, has been a widely used window material in the industry since the 1980s. Tough, resistant to rot, and requiring very little maintenance, uPVC windows have been a popular choice with many homeowners. What is the difference between uPVC and aluminium windows? There are obviously many differences between the two materials, each having their own individual benefits whilst surprisingly having a little crossover too! Here are 6 differences which help outline things you may want to consider: Cost Internationally Aluminium is always much more expensive to install compared to typical uPVC windows but in Pakistan there are few vendors/importers deal in uPVC, so, cost of uPVC is much higher than Aluminium windows. In Pakistan uPVC cost 3 times more than Aluminium windows. Internationally uPVC windows has mass popularity since the 1980’s, but in Pakistan it was introduced few years ago. Durability Although most uPVC windows typically have a long life span, the frames have the potential to degrade over many years. White color also transforms to pale white in Chinese sections. Aluminium on the other hand is a much more robust material for use as a window frame. With proper care it can be fitted to last almost infinitely, whilst being fairly low maintenance. Energy efficiency Whilst many original uPVC windows fitted in houses today have the unfortunate reputation of being terrible thermal insulators, modern uPVC is quite the opposite. Contemporary uPVC now makes use of a complex internal profile which maximises thermal retention. Aluminium windows can achieve the same levels of energy efficiency. Thanks to an innovative polyamide thermal break, aluminium windows are equally thermal retentive to keep any home warmer/cooler for longer. uPVC-777x437Aesthetics When choosing what kind of window frame to pick for your home, it’s ideal to have one that can increase the beauty of both the inside and outside of your home. Never feel bad for considering style as well as function, aesthetically pleasing windows can even add value to your home! Thanks to their incredibly sleek sightlines, aluminium frames make for some incredibly views of the outside from the inside of the house. Despite these slim profiles that they are capable of holding larger glass panes thanks to their strong durability, enhancing the amount of natural light that enters your home. Aesthetically uPVC is warmly welcomed in Pakistan. In many people’s eyes it gives off a simple, white plastic look that is very attractive. Sound Proofing One way in which uPVC does trump aluminium, is in its insulation capability. uPVC was originally designed to be a competent insulator and as such, provides the best sound proofing capability for homeowners who live in a busy built up area. Despite both frames being able to be double or even triple glazed, compared to aluminium, uPVC’s capability to keep out sound is sometimes a reason for its popularity. Ease of maintenance uPVC is undoubtedly the best option if you want a material that is easy to maintain. Thanks to the high quality plasticised material, they are continually easy to clean and just require a simple wipe-down with a cloth, if ever they get dirty. Equally impressive, aluminium windows are incredibly robust which makes them resistant to corrosion and are completely weatherproof. This enables them to look as good as the day they were installed, never rotting or warping. Which should you choose? – Every homeowner is different! Aluminium: If you desire a window that is both energy efficient whilst making for some sleek enticing sightlines, aluminium windows are the choice for you. Despite their lower cost, they can also last longer than their uPVC counterpart and offer many benefits as a result. uPVC: If you want a window that provides effective soundproofing that is also highly low in maintenance, uPVC can more than meet your needs. They offer the greatest aesthetics, they can still be coloured to successfully fit into the features of your home. Single Glazed vs Double Glazed Windows: What’s Right for You? An energy efficient home is a comfortable home, as it is one that is easier to heat or cool. Making sure your home is energy efficient will not only improve comfort, but will also save money on utilities. Insulation, location, and the materials used in home construction will all help to increase energy efficiency. The glass you use in your home is also critical when it comes to energy efficiency. If you’re deciding between single glazed and double glazed windows, it’s important to know the differences, and which option is better for your home. Single Glazed vs Double Glazed: The DifferenceInsulated-Double-Pane-Glass A single glazed window is constructed using a single pane of glass. This means that the only thing separating your home from the outside environment, is that pane of glass. Typical window glass is of 5mm, which doesn’t provide adequate insulation. A single glazed window can be up to 20 times less efficient than an insulated wall when it comes to energy loss or storage. Double glazed windows utilize two separate pieces of glass, separated by a vacuum. The vacuum layer acts as an insulative barrier. The glass used can be laminated or UV tinted, but is otherwise similar to the glass used in single glazed windows. When double glazing is retrofitted to an existing window installation, the thermal efficiency can be improved by up to 80%. Factory made double glazed windows can be up to 100% more efficient than a single glazed equivalent. What Benefits Does Double Glazing Provide? The most obvious benefit to be gained from double glazed windows, is the increase in thermal efficiency. This means that it will be easier to maintain the temperature inside your home. This is especially beneficial to families with air conditioners, or central climate control systems. An example would be a home that is using a split type air conditioner in living room during summer. Without double glazing, the cooling inside is easily lost. This means that the indoor unit is forced to work harder to maintain a comfortable temperature in the room. With double glazing, heat loss can be reduced by half in optimal conditions. When combined with insulated curtains covering the windows, the heat loss becomes even less. Are there Disadvantages to Double Glazing? MB-70 HI aluprofBecause double glazing is more efficient than single glazing, the heat that enters the home during summer months is more easily stored. This means that certain steps should be taken to mitigate the problem during summer when sunshine hours are longer. Price is major disadvantage of Double Glazed windows. Cost of double glazing is more than Two times the cost of single glazed windows. Professional installation is issue in double glazing. There are few companies in Lahore which provides professional double glazing services and Pinnacle Construction is one of them. The Bottom Line Even though the initial cost of double glazed windows is higher than single glazed alternatives, double glazed windows will pay for themselves with reduced energy costs, over time. This makes them the best choice for new homes and renovations.
Various doors enrich aesthetic beauty and provide safety to our homes. These doors consist of two parts – frame and shutter. Doors are available in various shapes, designs and materials like wood, iron, PVC or plastic and aluminium in the market. This Pinnacle Construction help article tells you about various types of doors in detail. Wooden Doors Wooden doors are used in our homes traditionally. They are attractive, durable and provide safety to homes. These doors are easy to make and are preferred for their carved designs. Easy availability of timber and attractive look make them superior to other doors. Wooden doors are available in following categories in the market. 1. Flush Doors 2. Panelled Doors a. Semi Solid Doors b. Solid Wood Door 3. Wire Gauge Doors 1. Flush Doors These doors are becoming popular for their nice look, less cost and better strength than panelled doors. Flush doors are easy to make and undergo little expansion or contraction with the changes in weather. Now flush type doors has gained a major market share in the construction of a house. It has plain or curved facings on both sides of the construction. A flush door consists of skeleton or a hollow framework of rails and stiles, top and bottom rails, and narrow intermediate rails. It is covered on each side by a sheet of plywood. This door has a joint-less surface on both the sides. The shape stability of this door depends to an extent on the fixing on the flush or moulded facing to the core. The lighter and thinner the core the more facing are used to provide stability. The nominal thickness of flush door shutter varies from 25mm to 40mm depending upon the types of doors. Decorative type plywood or face veneer is used for the face panel that is called a decorative type of door. Decorative plywood shall be bonded with a synthetic resin adhesive, borer proof suitable for intended use. Decorative veneer may be rotary cut or sliced which is usually not more than 1 mm thick. Non-decorative type plywood or face veneer is used for the face panel that is called a non-decorative type of door. Advantages of Flush Doors: 1. Good uniform strengthproducthandler Plywood is a strong material, it gives your door a uniform wooden look with consistent beauty. These are low maintenance durable doors. 2. Available in large sizes compared to solid wood It’s very easy to get a nice looking uniformly thick plywood sheet of size 7’x3.5′ (7 feet x 3.5 feet) from the market, but quite impractical to get solid flat wood of such a size (which tree could be cut and how?). This is the most significant benefit that plywood offers compared to solid wood, and that’s the reason it became so popular since its discovery. These large sized engineered plywood sheets allow for a variety of applications that would be difficult to achieve using solid wood. 3. Economical use of wood by mixing various woods together Some woods are priced for their beauty (teak, diyar, mahogany, ash, oak etc.) but are also costly. The grains of such woods can be achieved to form the surface layer of the plywood, while the inner layers could be composed of other strong but cheaper woods. Such a mix and match is possible while constructing plywood and the financial benefits accrued from this, can be passed on to the end consumer. 4. Available in varieties such as flexible plywood several interesting varieties have now come up in plywood. One of them is flexible plywood (also known as bendy ply). It can be rolled up or bent to form curved surfaces and allows for more applications curved/circular doors. 5. Lesser wastage of wood in comparison with the process of acquiring solid wood blocks, the plywood making process has less wastage of material, so we can utilize more part of the tree logs in this way. 6. Durable material Plywood is quite durable and lasts many long years. Not as long as solid wood pieces, but much better compared to the cheaper Particle board/solid core semi solid doors, which eventually needs to be replaced. 7. Less costly compared to solid wood Solid wood is better, because it is a natural product, but it’s also very costly. Plywood costs lesser in comparison. So a reasonable trade-off for most people is to opt for decent quality plydoors Disadvantages of Flush Doors: 1. Water can damage plywood. The layers of plywood can come apart on prolonged exposure to water. This drawback can be overcome by choosing BWR Waterproof grade for plywood that is likely to get wet. 2. Difficult to judge the quality of a plywood sheet. As a customer, it’s difficult to judge which wood has been used for making the plywood. The outer surface veneers can be seen, but what about the inner ones? The market has several varieties of plywood, from locally made products to those from reputed brands. Its important to choose wisely and buy from a trusted source. 3. Not considered as strong as solid wood. Plywood is not as strong as the heavier and denser as solid wood. However the plus point is that plywood costs lesser. 2. Paneled Doors Paneled doors consist of a frame grooved inside edges to receive one or more panels. Vertical members are called as stile whereas horizontal members are called rail i.e. top rail, middle or lock rail, and bottom rail etc. The door may have two to ten panels according to drawing or architectural requirements. The panels are made of timber, plywood, lasani board, veneered particle board etc. All members of shutters should be straight without any wrap bow and should have smooth well planned face at right angles to each other. Timber for stiles and rails of paneled doors should be of same species from seasoned wood. The timber should be plane, smooth and accurate to the required dimensions. Using mortise and tenon joints, stiles and rails should be jointed. The contact surfaces of joints should be treated with bulk type synthetic resin adhesive and pinned with 10 mm dia. The thickness of door shutters varies from 25 mm to 40 mm. Semi Solid Doors Solid cores used in semi solid are made from pressed panels of lasani sheets or sawdust or scrap wood binded with a resinous adhesive. Solid cores are also made from small blocks of wood joined together with glue Semi-solid doors are available in many of the same varieties as hollow or solid doors. They feature many different wood species and grain matches, as well as a large selection of paints and polish. These doors can be pressed with panel designs or can be cut to receive windows or louvers. Most semi-solid doors still have solid lumber edges to improve security and help hold locks and hardware in place. Advantages of Semi Solid Doors • The doors are comparatively heat resistant • The doors can resist abrasions • The colours on the door remain vibrant and bright for a long time • They are eco-friendly as tree wood is not wasted. All wasted wood chips, sawdust, tiny wasted pieces of wood effectively used in semi solid doors. Disadvantages of semi solid doors 2. Many semi solid doors have lower grades or cuts of wood. You will often find that the very cheap engineered woods. The graining looks different and cheaper than what you are expecting on solid wood door. Also, some cheaper engineered doors has a lot of “shorts” (i.e. pieces that are only few inches in length which are glued together). Some of them will have more knots, too. This is something that is not apparent in the samples. 2. Life of semi solid doors is not very long. Tiny wood parts or Lasani sheet inserted in doors will lose joint in longer run. Cost cutting and lower craftsmanship result in improper pressing and poor gluing. 3. There is excessive use of adhesives in semi solid doors. Adhesives used in some doors may be toxic. A concern with some resins is the release of formaldehyde in the finished product, often seen with urea-formaldehyde bonded products. 4. Most workshop owner don’t obey industry standards for making solid core/engineered wood. Workers use unauthentic shortcuts to make the job done. 5. Some semi solid doors look and sound more fake, it will sound and look more artificial. If your house is for sale, it may cause some buyers may feel this is a lower value. Solid Doors Wood doors have a rich sense of character and beauty all their own. Perhaps this can be attributed to their natural wood grain, their polished appearance and the heavy, durable feel they tend to have. What’s more, they can be a stunning way to make a statement at your front entry and also give guests an idea of what awaits in your home’s interior spaces. Here are a few features of wood doors to note before installing one at your home. All of woods that go in to doors are hand selected from rough cut whole wood to ensure that you receive matching grains of wood on all of the components of your doors. Both our exterior wood doors and interior wood doors are ensured to be the highest quality due to their hand-crafted construction, deep pocket mortise and tenon joinery, feather tenoned and double tongued base rails, floating panel frames, secure seated louvers, full custom thickness and sizing, historically accurate designs and styles. Prosastonishing-wooden-door-and-frames-door-and-window-designs-in-wooden-incredible-frames-design-wooden-door-and-frames-l-06671259f6bd3bac As noted above the wood grain is one of the most attractive features of a wooden exterior door. As with wooden doors, there are numerous options of wood to choose from when it comes to your door. You can have everything from a modern and Ash or Mahogany to a traditional Diyar or Kyle along with plenty of selections that fall somewhere in between. Door panels, molding and any special feature you want can be crafted into the wood. You can also customize the finish of your door with polish or paint. Polish is a popular choice allowing you to show the wood’s natural grain. Solid wood doors means you have superior durability and insulation. This may not only help with security concerns and energy savings, but could also reduce the amount of noise you hear from the outdoors. Another attractive quality of wood doors is that they can be custom made to fit any size opening or trimmed to a specific size doorway. In this regard, wood is a material that easy to work with and can be made to fit your exact needs. You can even have windows or space for glass inserts cut into a custom door. Cons Cost; it is biggest disadvantage of Solid wood doors. Solid wood doors not only looks expensive but they are actually very expensive. Solid wood doors cost significantly high due to the fact that they are made completely from wood. Wood doors do require a bit of care and maintenance to keep them looking and performing at their peak. For instance, you may need to touch up polish or paint every few years, as they may chip with normal wear and tear over time. One other thing to note is that wood doors — because of their heavy material — may sag over time. Again, this can be fixed with routine maintenance or updates to your hardware and frame. d) Wire Gauge Doors Wire gauge or fly proof door shutters are fixed to provide free air circulation and prevent mosquitoes, flies, insects etc. from entering into the building. Wire gauge or fly proof doors are generally provided in kitchens, canteens and refreshment rooms. The external doorframe has double rebate having panel door shutter open inside whereas outer shutter is of wire gauge and open outside. Manufacturing of wire gauge doors is almost same as panelled doors; the only difference is of wire gauge in panels used instead of wood or ply panels. Wire gauge in panel should have single piece and each panel should not exceed 0.5 sq. meters. Iron or Steel Doors Rolling shutters are used for main door entry of shops, commercial complex and garage in houses. M.S. angles, T- Iron and square bars iron doors are provided at entry gate of the house. Steel doors are extremely durable and can also be painted in polished look. The only drawback of these doors is that they easily corrode and discolour. PVC or plastic doors PVC or plastic doors are mostly used in toilets and remain unaffected from water and termite effects etc. They are available in wide range of colors and required sizes. PVC doors are anti corrosive, light weight and maintenance free. They are manufactured in plastic factories. Plastic doors are resistant to moisture and chemical but they cannot resist harsh environment conditions like wooden or metal doors. These doors are not suitable for entry doors as they are combustible in nature, hence they should be saved from fire. Aluminium doors Aluminium doors are used typically in shower cabins, shops, departmental stores, hotels and commercial establishments. In official and residential buildings, aluminium doors are used to offer architectural considerations between formal and informal areas. They are durable and prevent unwanted intrusions. Aluminium doors are good choices for houses with modern designs. These doors do not rust, provide weatherproof qualities but they can be water stained easily and look white due to oxidation. iron-door-500x5001c572fefa8544d89a9241877224d489a--aluminium-doors-sliding-doors
Bricks A brick is small block of burnt clay with a size that can be held in one hand conveniently. Brick should be thoroughly burnt, of uniform color, having plane rectangular faces, sharp 2017-02-09straight, right angle edges. Standard Modular size of common building brick is 230x115x80 mm. The weight of a brick is about 4 to 5 kg. Visual Characteristics of Brick Good bricks should be burnt thoroughly so that they become hard and durable. Satisfactory burning of the bricks is ascertained by hard ringing sound when two bricks are struck together. The bricks should have smooth and rectangular shapes with sharp corners and uniform colors. The bricks should be free from cracks, chips, warp age, large particles of lime and organic matters. Water Absorption of Brick Average water absorption of bricks after 24 hours of immersion in cold water should not be more than 20% of its own dry weight. There are three types of bricks First Class Bricks Second Class Bricks Third Class Bricks 2017-02-18Specification of First Class Bricks Made of good earth which is free from saline deposits and are sand molded. Burnt thoroughly without being vitrified and have deep red, cherry and copper color (it may vary depending on soil type/color). Regular and uniform in shape and size with sharp and square edges and parallel faces. Must be homogeneous in texture and emit a clear ringing sound on being struck together. Free from flaws, cracks, chops, stones and lime. Should not absorb water more than 20% of its own dry weight after 24 hours, immersion in cold water. Should not show appreciable sign of efflorescence either in dry state or subsequent to soaking in water. Specification of Second Class Bricks They shall be well burnt or slightly over burnt. They must give clear ringing sound when struck. The may have slight irregularities in size and shape. They may have slight chips, flaws or surface crack but must be free from lime or kankar. Specification of Third Class Bricks These bricks are slightly under burnt or over burnt. They are not uniform in shape, size and edges. They shall not observe water more than 25% of their own dry weight after 24 hours, immersion in cold water. They have some signs of efflorescence. Sand Fine sand should consist of natural sand or crushed stone sand. It should be hard, durable, clean and be free from organic matter etc.Fine Sand should not contain any appreciable amount of clay balls and harmful impurities such as alkalis, salts, coal, decayed vegetation etc. The silt contents should not exceed 4%. Various Types of Sandmain-qimg-cab6478040d9134be006317150aae974 There are following three types of sand. 1. Pit Sand 2. River Sand 3. Sea Sand Pit Sand (Coarse Sand) Pit sand is obtained by forming pits into soil from ‘Quarries’. It consists of sharp angular grains which are free from salts. River Sand This sand is obtained from banks or beds of rivers. River sand is fine and consists of fine rounded grains. The color of river sand is almost white and Greyish. River sand is usually available in clean condition and is used for masonry & plastering. Sea Sand This sand is obtained from sea shores. Sea sand contains salts which attract moisture from atmosphere. Such absorption causes dampness and disintegration of work. Sea sand also retards setting action of cement. Due to these reasons, sea sand is generally avoided for engineering purposes. It is used only as a local material for non-structural purposes. Precautions while unloading Sand The supplier/truck owner carries sub standard material of above two cheap qualities of ‘Coarse Sand’ at the cheap rate and he tells house owner that carried material is the best material because house owner does not know much about the quality of material. If the owner has some knowledge about sand and asks for the quality of ‘Coarse Sand’ and objects about silt contents in coarse sand, the truck owner or supplier asks to sprinkle some water on sand and assures that the material will be the best material. Precautions while purchasing coarse sand House owner must be very careful while purchasing ‘Coarse Sand’. He must have latest knowledge about quality and quantity of the material.fine-river-sands-250x250 House owner has to pay more money for Cheap quality of the coarse sand. Labor to sprinkle water on the coarse sand. Rates because house owner has not much knowledge about market. Measurement which the house owner generally does not know. The supplier tells a lie by saying more quantity of the material and unloads the truck. Usually he unloads the truck during night or in early hours of the day in absence of house owner. In some cases he produces false receipt of ‘Quarry Site’. Precautions for the purchase of material About Rate: House owner should collect rates from more than 3 or 4 suppliers. He should also collect the rates from few truck owners who stand their trucks with full of material at the early hours of the day on prescribed place in every city/town. About Quality: When you take the supply, check the quality of material. Never accept silty material because this material is harmful as stated above. About Measurement: Where the supplier or truck owner suspects that the house owner may measure the truck in day time, he applies following methods to befool the owner. He stops the truck at some distances from the site and gets the material loosen by spade and sprinkle water on sand in the truck. Due to spading and the water sprinkled over sand, the sand becomes bulky and it gives more height. Hence he charges on more quantity. He also tries to make the house owner fool in calculation for example if the measurement is 3 feet 6 Inches, he calculates it as 3.6 but actually it is 3.5 feet. He also tries to measure the height at the backside where the height is raised with the help of spade. Precautions for measurement a) When one takes supply of material, he should measure the height of material in the truck. If the material is pressed by your feet when you climb on the material in the truck, you should think that the material has been made loose with spade by truck driver; you should reject the material. If the material is not pressed by your feet, it is O.K. b) You should take the height with the help of iron rod by inserting it into the sand, but care should be taken if the truck driver takes measurement of the height, he can take the other height from low place and takes average of 2 or 3 points in heights. Take the length and width of truck after unloading of the material. c) Try to get the material in cash terms and payment made by you after measurement of the height, length and breadth as the truck driver/owner charges less rates on cash payment, direct from house owner as compared to the supply taken from suppliers. Cement For engineering purposes, there are many types of cement but in general, ‘Ordinary Portland Cement’ (OPC) is used. Various Colors of Cement Grey = Color of OPC cement Blackish = Color of PPC Cement White = Other color of Cement Cement-BagsVarious Cement Companies Askari Cement Limited Attock Cement Pakistan Limited Bestway Cement Limited Cherat Cement Dewan Cement Limited. D.G. Khan Cement Dandot Cement Limited Fecto Cement Limited Fauji Cement Company Gharibwal Cement Limited Kohat Cement Company Limited Lucky Cement Limited Maple Leaf Cement Factory Limited Pak Land Cement Pioneer Cement Limited Power Cement Limited Tahtta Cement Company Limited Purchasing Guidelines for Cement Specification of Cement The cement required for construction should be factory-manufactured from a reputed manufacturer. It must not be from the local plant manufacturer. Care should be taken that the cement is properly packed from the factory, not be hand packed locally. While taking supply of cement manufacturing date, grade and type should be checked. The cement should not be more than six weeks old from the date of manufacturing. Precautions While Purchasing Cement Cement is the most important raw material used in a building. You should ensure the quality of ‘Cement’ using the following guidelines. The cement should be factory manufactured instead of plant manufactured. The cement bags should not be hand stitched. The cement bag should bear manufacturer’s name or his trade mark on it if any.Maple-leaf-new The cement bag should bear the grade and type of cement. The cement bag consignment must have identification mark on package. One cement bag should have 50 Kg. weight. The cement bags should not be older than six weeks from the date of manufacturing. Do not purchase cement bags which are partially set due to moisture. Do not purchase if there are small lumps in the bags. Do not purchase cement bags which are pressed or have lumps due to high pressure of stack having more than 10 to 12 bags. Do not take cement bags which are torn by side and stitched in later. Precautions While Transporting Cement Bags Care should be taken to carry the bags in a clean vehicle which is not dustier or on earth etc. It will reduce the strength of the cement. During monsoon season the cement should be carried under covered Polythene or ‘Tarpaulin’. Care should be taken that the labor should not tear the bags while loading and unloading the cement bags. Precautions While Stacking Cement at Site Store cement in a moist proof storage area otherwise quality of cement will be affected. Cement should be stacked in a shed, which is relatively dry place as construction is water intensive industry. Cement should be placed on dry brick floors, on wooden crates or on the planks. The stack should not be higher than 10 bags to avoid lumps under pressure. The cement bags should not be stacked with outer wall. Cement from different manufacturers should be stacked separately. The cement should be used on first come first used basis. During monsoon season cement bags should be covered with polythene. The cement bags should be kept close together to reduce air circulation. Steel Bars Generally there are two types of steel bars (“Sariya” as Local Term) available in the market.23893ddfe76e545bd3747372b2848e31-2 Mild steel bars Deformed steel bars Mild steel bars Mild steel bars are used for tensile stress of RCC (Reinforced cement concrete) slab beams etc. in reinforced cement concrete work. These steel bars are plain in surface and are round sections of diameter from 6 to 50 mm. These rods are manufactured in long lengths and can be cut quickly and be bent easily without damage. Deformed steel bars As deformed bars are rods of steels provided with lugs, ribs or deformation on the surface of bar, these bars minimize slippage in concrete and increases the bond between the two materials. Deformed bars have more tensile stresses than that of mild steel plain bars. These bars can be used without end hooks. The deformation should be spaced along the bar at substantially uniform distances. To limit cracks that may develop in reinforced concrete around mild steel bars due to stretching of bars and some lose of bond under load it is common to use deformed bars that have projecting ribs or are twisted to improve the bond with concrete. These bars are produced in sections from 6 mm to 50 mm dia. In addition the strength of bonds of deformed bars calculated should be 40 to 80 % higher than that of plain round bars of same nominal size. And it has more tensile stress than that of plain round bars of same nominal size. Cold twisted deformed (Ribbed or Tor Steel Bars) bars are also recommended for RCC Structure. TOR is a brand name – Toristeg Steel Corporation of Luxembourg. Their name (TOR) became synonymous with Cold Twisted Deformed (CTD) steel bars due to popularity. TOR is also used as a synonym for reinforcement bars in general. Steel Bars for RCC Work All finished steel bars for reinforced work should be neatly rolled to the dimension and weights as specified. They should be sound, free from cracks, surface flaws, laminations, rough, jagged and imperfect edges and other defects. It should be finished in a work manlike manner. WhatsApp Image 2018-03-29 at 3.14.12 PMGeneral precautions for steel bars in reinforcement Steel bars should clear, free from loose mil scales, dust, paints, oil or other coatings which may destroy or reduce bond strength. Steel bars should be stored in such a way as to avoid distortion and to prevent deterioration and corrosion. Steel bars should not be clean by oily substance to remove the rust. The bar is bent correctly and accurately to the size and shape as shown in drawings. If possible, the bar of full length is used. If possible overlapping bars do not touch each other and these should be kept apart with concrete. The overlap if given should be staggered. The cranks in the bar at the end should be kept in position by using spots. The steel bars should not be disturbed while lying cements concrete. Required cover under steel bars should be given before laying the cement concrete. No over lap is given in the bar having a diameter more than 36 mm, if required, the bar should be welded. Weight of Different Steel Bars When we want to purchase Mild steel members from the market, the shopkeeper quotes the price of steel members in weight. When any type of steel members for use in house construction is required, we calculate the length of steel member in feet or meter but we are ignorant about the weight of steel. Here are details of weight per meter for various types of steel members:- This will help you for estimated weight and cost. It will also help at the time of purchase to avoid pilferage in weight. But there are few steel manufacturer in Pakistan with correct weight. There are huge variation in weight of equal length of bars. This typically happen in unbranded or unfamiliar brands of steel. These bars are manufactured from iron scrap. But few manufacturer still produce bars from virgin Steel billets. Always prefer to buy branded steel like Amreli Steels Limited (www.amrelisteels.com), Kamran Steel or Model Steel.WhatsApp Image 2018-03-29 at 2.43.12 PM